The Indian Constitution is primarily federal, having features essential for a federal system. In a unitary state there is only one government, namely the national government, in a federal state there are two governments the national or federal government and the government of each component unit. India as a federal system has a Central Government and State Governments.
A division of authority exists between the federal government and the States, there are three lists enumerating the powers of Union, State and Concurrent. A federal state derives its existence from the Constitution. Every power- Executive, Legislative, or Judicial whether it belongs tothe federation or to the component units is subordinate to and controlled by the Constitution. The Indian Constitution is a written document which defines the structure, organization and powers of the Central as well as State governments, and clearly prescribes the limits within which each wing functions.
The constitution of India provides a bicameral legislature at the Centre. The Rajya Sabha gives representation to the States. Parts of the Indian Constitutionwhich concern the federal structure can be amended by the Centre only with the consent of the majority of the Sate legislatures. Independent Judiciary in a federal system the courts are vested with a final power to interpret the Constitution and see to it that no action on the part of the federal and state governments violates the provisions of the Constitution. In India Supreme Court is given this power to guard the distribution of powers and the constitutional provisions. Despite the essential features of a federation that characterize the Indian Constitution there are some features that make it different from the typical federal systems of the world. There is a single Constitution for the Union and the Sates in India unlike the case of other federations . No State except Jammu and Kashmir has its own separate Constitution.